International Relations

State-led security responses and violent extremism: a comparative analysis of Libya, Egypt and Tunisia

“This article investigates the link between the deterioration of state-society relations and the increase in state-sponsored violence in the MENA region in the aftermath of the Arab Uprisings. It does so to address the question of whether state-led security responses are directly related to the perceived proliferation of violent extremism networks. Relying on the comparative analysis of Libya, Egypt and…

Muslim Attitudes Towards the European Union

“How do Muslim citizens across the globe perceive the European Union? And what factors influence their EU attitudes? This book offers the first systematic theoretical and empirical analysis of Muslim citizens’ EU attitudes in and outside the European Union. Using the best empirical data available, the book demonstrates that Muslim citizens’ attitudes are not shaped by their denomination and religious…

Self-expression values, loyalty generation, and support for authoritarianism: evidence from the Arab world

“This study examines the micro foundations of political support in Arab polities. Most Arab states rank highly in aggregate human development or economic wealth, but they lag behind in democracy defying the predictions of modernization theory. Modernization and human development perspective implies that increased resources and self-expression values will induce critical political outlooks toward the regime. This study questions the…

The Inconvenient Facts Hindering a New Approach to Refugee Assistance Program — the Labor Potential of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

“Due to the ongoing conflict, most Syrian refugees have fled to countries that neighbor Syria and the governments of these developing countries are now the principal entities for implementing Syrian refugee policies. These policies accommodate refugees in camps or provide refugees with residency in urban areas, but impose severe restrictions on their employment. Betts and Collier, professors at the University…

Increasing Entrepreneurial Impact in the MENA Region

“This chapter treats countries of Middle East and of North Africa (MENA) as two similar but culturally distinct sub-regions of MENA. Using data collected by academics and international organisations (e.g. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, OECD, UNDP), Qatar, U.A.E., Jordan in the Middle East, and Morocco in North Africa, emerge as the countries most likely to have the potential to develop a…

THE EU-TUNISIA PRIVILEGED PARTNERSHIP – WHAT NEXT?

“On 15 May 2018, Tunisia and the European Union (EU) will hold an Association Council meeting where they are expected to adopt partnership priorities, the dedicated framework used since the review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in 2015 in replacement of the former action plan. Since the last Association Council meeting in May 2017, some voices on both sides…

Turkey in the Middle East

Turkey, as country with a long history in the region and its promotion of “shared brotherhood”, has exerted a significant influence on Middle Eastern societies. Even though Turkey followed pro-Israel and anti-Islamist policies in the past, its policies have increasingly become anti-Israel and pro-Islamist with the increasing prominence of Recep Tayyip Erdogan. After the Arab Spring, a period in which…

The EU, Resilience and the MENA Region

Resilience is one of the key concepts introduced in the European Union’s foreign and security lexicon, especially following its inclusion as the main leitmotif of the EU Global Strategy (EUGS). Unveiled by the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) Federica Mogherini in late June 2016, the EUGS…

The EU-Tunisia Privileged Partnership – What Next?

On 15 May 2018, Tunisia and the European Union (EU) will hold an Association Council meeting where they are expected to adopt partnership priorities, the dedicated framework used since the review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in 2015 in replacement of the former action plan. Since the last Association Council meeting in May 2017, some voices on both sides…

The False Assumptions Fueling America’s Endless War

….Terror Recruitment Fueled by U.S. Military Strikes As part of the war on terror, America has conducted military operations in at least eight Muslim-majority countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria, Libya, Yemen, Somalia, and Niger. Polling clearly shows the use of U.S. military force has inflamed grievances among Muslims. A survey of 11 Muslim-majority populations, for example, found that more respondents…

How Concerned Are You About Growing Sectarian Divisions?

For international security, the year 2017 was marked – among others – by signs of a continued erosion of the so-called liberal international order and an increasingly unpredictable US foreign policy. Tensions in many parts of the world have been growing: the rhetoric between the US and North Korea has escalated, the rift in the Gulf has become deeper, not…

Threatens a new wave of radicalization?

“In early December 2017, US President Donald Trump announced the US recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish people and state of Israel. With this unexpected move, Trump not only violated the will, the resolutions and the aspirations of the international community, but he also maintained his unconditional support for Benjamin Netanyahu’s policies. Arab states, Islamic countries, European…

Europa ligt maar beter wakker van Tunesië

…In het algemeen wordt Tunesië geroemd als tot nog toe enige succesvol democratisch experiment na de Arabische revoluties. Maar het wordt afwachten hoe de regering nu verder omgaat met de protesten – olie op het vuur of olie op de golven? Uit peilingen blijkt steeds weer dat de Tunesiërs niet tegen hun democratie zijn, maar wel een betere kwaliteit van…