Arab Spring

No Arab Bourgeoisie, No Democracy? The Entrepreneurial Middle Class and Democratic Attitudes since the Arab Spring

This study examines the democratic attitudes of the Arab world’s small business community before and after the start of the Arab Spring. We begin by analyzing the results from three waves of the Arab Barometer surveys (2006–2009, 2010–2011, and 2012–2014). All together, these datasets comprise more than 34,000 individuals, which include 3,075 small business owners across fourteen Arab countries. Our…

Gender, migration and the Arab Spring: evidence from Egypt

Dans les années récentes, plusieurs pays du Moyen Orient et de l’Afrique du Nord (MENA) ont témoigné des vagues de manifestations et de mouvements révolutionnaires, connus sous le nom du « Printemps arabe ». Ces séries de manifestations se sont révélées contagieuses ; elles ont commencé en Tunisie en 2010 et se sont rapidement propagées dans la région. L’Egypte, le…

The Arab Uprisings in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia: Social, Political and Economic Transformations

The Arab Uprisings were unexpected events of rare intensity in Middle Eastern history – mass, popular and largely non-violent revolts which threatened and in some cases toppled apparently stable autocracies. This volume provides in-depth analyses of how people perceived the socio-economic and political transformations in three case studies epitomising different post-Uprising trajectories – Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt – and drawing…

Al-Sisi poised for empty victory in Egypt as signs of unrest grow across the region

“Egyptians are voting in presidential elections on March 26-28. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who grabbed power in 2013, is set to win another term by a landslide. Yet this is far from a sign of strength: opposition candidates have been silenced, and even pro-government media are being purged of the slightest undertone of dissent. Al-Sisi’s grip on power may appear firm,…

The Arab Spring: to be continued

…Quite unexpectedly, during that poll, as many as 11.5% of the Tunisians said that their country was democratic against 14% saying that it was ruled by a dictator regime. The key problems were corruption and unemployment. The Tunisians did not believe their leaders – be they political or religious. Most of them said that their economy was worse than it…

Het succesnummer van de Tunesische revolutie is na zeven jaar grijsgedraaid

…Het gevoel dat Tunesië ‘verloren’ is, lijkt breed te worden gedeeld. En tegelijkertijd lijken er maar weinig mensen in te geloven dat ze daarin iets kunnen veranderen. Vooral onder jongeren is de wanhoop groot. Het academisch onderzoeksproject Arab Barometer peilde dat de helft van de jongeren tussen 18 en 24 jaar erover denkt te vertrekken. ‘Ik heb er zelf nooit…

Tunisia’s Revolution, Act 2

…The country’s duly elected prime minister, Youssef Chahed, even went to the streets to talk to demonstrators – a type of accountability hardly imagined elsewhere in the region. He pleaded for people to accept the necessary belt-tightening. Police appeared sympathetic to the cries of youths left jobless by a stagnant economy. And the media covered the public outburst without restraint….

Understanding the Context: Hopes and Challenges in 2011

This chapter discusses the causes of the Arab Uprisings, who took part, what people saw as the main challenges facing their country and what their hopes were. It outlines the principal explanations for the Uprisings, then uses survey data to explore people’s views on key issues. We consider what we can learn from public opinion surveys about ordinary people’s assumptions…

Socio-economic Inequality and the Failure of Development Strategies for the Middle East

The main drivers of the Arab Uprisings were economic grievances and a perceived growth in inequalities. Poor economic growth and lack of inclusive policies are the underlying causes of insecurity in the region The main concerns of people in the MENA are economic security and corruption. People think that the best way in which the EU can help their countries…

Monarchy and Effective Governance: The Success of Middle Eastern Monarchies and the Arab Spring

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the outcomes of the 2011 Arab Spring from the perspective of regime types within the Middle East and North Africa. The intense year of protest that spread throughout the Arab world had disparate effects between countries which this paper investigates. Utilizing an institutional approach, I separate the Arab world into monarchic and…

What Drives Migration from the Middle East? Why People Want to Leave Arab States

Drivers of migration include conflicts and instability, but are mostly economic. Over half of migrants and displaced persons originating from MENA stay within the region. Most likely to emigrate are young educated men seeking temporary stays to find work. EU public debate focuses on potential security threats from population inflows, but ignore economic benefits both to host countries and to…

Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Arab Uprisings

The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are expected to have influenced two key civic atti-tudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessmentsof the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact andpresents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing…